Travellers have been warned of unpredictable "flash mob" protests and random attacks on protesters in updated Hong Kong travel advice after thousands of democracy campaigners brought the city's airport to a standstill on Monday night.
Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) told travellers to exercise a "high degree" of caution and check their flight status following ongoing, "intensified protests".
The Hong Kong Airport Authority said flights at one of the world's busiest airports would resume at 6am local time (8am AEST) after it was forced to abandon more than 160 departures from its international terminal.
"Exercise a high degree of caution in Hong Kong," DFAT advice reads. "'Flash mob' protests and random attacks on protesters have become less predictable and are expected to continue."
"There is a high risk of violent confrontation between protesters and police, or criminally linked individuals."
DFAT last week raised the warning level for Hong Kong.
"We recommend travellers contact their airline or tour operator for the latest flight updates," a DFAT spokeswoman said.
"Consular officials from the Australian Consulate-General in Hong Kong and Macau were at the airport on 12 August to help Australian tourists seeking to safely exit the airport."
Prime Minister Scott Morrison called for de-escalation ahead a Pacific Islands Forum that is expected to focus on climate change and China's growing influence in the region.
"My view is one to seek to de-escalate things, to encourage the chief executive of Hong Kong to be listening carefully to what people are saying in Hong Kong and work towards a peaceful and calm resolution of what is a very, very serious issue."
Max is a journalist at The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age.